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Why Didn’t Anyone Do Today’s Reading? – Engaging Students by Building Relationships 

Article by Pamela Rivers

The semester is well under way. Your students have taken their first exam. Some are active and excelling. Others have stopped coming to class or are not completing the assigned readings. Welcome to the end of September.

Maybe you thought this time it wouldn’t happen. Everyone was eager and excited and answering your questions for the first few class sessions. Now, however, you are right back to encountering some disengaged students doing what feels like the bare minimum, and it’s eating away at your passion for teaching. Is this the fate for our classes, or are there more or different things we can do to reach students?

First, to be clear, engaging students is not magic, and although it should be informed by science, in many ways it’s also an art form. Like all art, some of it appeals to us and some of it doesn’t. No one can promise you a room full of fully engaged students who always turn in their homework, laugh at all your jokes, and come prepared every session. No trick or strategy works for every person, every time. There are, however, certain strategies you can employ to make it more likely your students will listen, attend, and want to do well, for you and for themselves.

Relationships Matter

In “Culturally Responsive Teachers Create Counter Narratives for Students”, Zaretta Hammond argues that relationships can be the “on ramp to learning.” She says that relationships can be as important as the curriculum. One research study cited in Relationship-Rich Education showed that alumni who had a faculty member who cared about them as a student felt more connected to their current jobs. Unfortunately, only 27% of graduates surveyed had someone in that role. This powerful research shows that developing relationships with our students not only engages them, but can also lead to their success down the road.

That is compelling research, and it can take a lot less than you might imagine to make a real difference in the lives of your students. Students want to know that you care, and they want to feel welcome in your classroom. Research suggests that colleges and universities need to invest in a “relentless welcome of their students,” (Felton and Lambert, 2020) but faculty can lead the way in their individual classrooms by integrating activities that build relationships and encourage engagement.

Getting to Know You Surveys

Before class starts, whether online or face-to-face, send out a “getting to know you” survey through Canvas. This survey can ask questions specific to your discipline, but it is also a place to show interest in your students and what might hold them back from being successful. You could ask about your students’ pronouns, how they prefer to be contacted, any worries they are having about your class, and any specific needs they have. You can find a lot out about a student by simply asking. Need a ready-made survey? Reach out to CATL to get a copy of our Canvas Template, which includes a sample survey.

Ice Breakers

When you hear the word “ice breakers,” you may groan. The truth is a silly, active icebreaker is a wonderful way to get face-to-face students moving and is a start to building classroom community (Sciutto, M.J., 1995). A people bingo game, for example, can help get students talking and will help them get to know each other. If you are teaching online, there are plenty of icebreakers you can do asynchronously, including video introductions or a game like two truths and a lie.

Class Norms

Developing a set of agreed-upon class norms (expectations or guidelines), both for your students and you, that everyone is involved in creating goes a long way toward building both trust and community. Next semester, take part of your first class session to have your students help you develop norms. If you need some ideas for what these class expectations might look like, check out the “Trust” section of this CATL toolbox article.

Make It Matter

Find ways to tie your assignments to students’ goals, lives, and futures. If you ask me to spend 2 hours every week looking up dictionary definitions for words I’ve never heard of for a random quiz that doesn’t seem to have any bearing on what I’m supposed to be learning in your course, I am unlikely to be motivated to keep spending my time looking in the dictionary. If, on the other hand, you explain to me the importance of the words I’m learning, how they will be useful in my next class, and even how they may show up on a licensing exam for my future career, my motivation changes.

Unplanned Conversations

In face-to-face or synchronous online courses, you can use the time before class or while students are working to chat with those students who are unoccupied. Mention something you liked about their work, ask how their weekend was, and show a genuine interest in them. You never know what you might learn in these conversations. It may not lead to anything, or it may lead to a student feeling seen. Establishing a friendly and open line of communication with students in this way also makes it more likely that they will feel comfortable coming to you if they have a question or issue in the class.

Give Your Students a Chance to be Successful

As you build up to the major coursework in your class, have small, low-stakes assignments that give them all an opportunity for success and to receive formative feedback. As students get a small taste of success, they will want to feel that more.

Use Your Students’ Names and Pronouns

Another way to make a student feel seen is by how you address them. Ask your students what they would like to be called and what pronouns they use in a “getting to know you survey” or some other activity at the start of the semester. If you are teaching a face-to-face class and are good with names, try to memorize their names and pronouns during the first few weeks and use them frequently. If you are teaching online or have more students than you can remember for a large face-to-face roster, ask students to complete the name pronunciation activity created by CATL to help instructors with names. In face-to-face classes, also consider having students create name tents that they can pull out for class use. These small steps show that you care about making them feel comfortable in class, and help students learn the names of their peers as well.

Engagement is Key for Student Success

There are no silver bullets for engagement, but hopefully there are a few things on this list that you can consider adding to your teaching practices. And the truth is, engagement matters. According to Miller in “The Value of Being Seen: Faculty-Student Relationships as the Cornerstone of Postsecondary Learning,” engaged students experience more academic success and have higher persistence rates. Keeping our students engaged gives them the best chance at success.

References

Cohen, E., & Viola, J. (2022). The role of pedagogy and the curriculum in university students’ sense of belonging. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 19(4), 1–17.

Felton, P., & Lambert, L. (2020). Relationship-Rich Education. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hammond, Z. (2018, June 18). Culturally Responsive Teachers Create Counter Narratives for Students. Valinda Kimmel. September 12, 2023, valinda.kimmel.com

Lu, Adrienne. (2023, February 17). Everyone Is Talking About “Belonging,” but What Does It Really Mean? Chronicle of Higher Education, 69(12), 1–6.

Miller, K. E. (2020). The Value of Being Seen: Faculty-Student Relationships as the Cornerstone of Postsecondary Learning. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching & Learning Journal, 13(1), 100–104.

Sciutto, M. J. (1995). Student-centered methods for decreasing anxiety and increasing interest level in undergraduate. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 22(3), 277.

Teaching & Learning in Point‐To‐Point (P2P) and Point‐To‐ Anywhere (P2A) Classrooms

Definitions

Point‐To‐Point (P2P) and Point‐To‐Anywhere (P2A) rooms are used at UW‐Green Bay to teach in the Interactive Video modality. Both room types allow for a synchronous class experience with a combination of in‐person and virtual students. Class sessions are not recorded. There is a Special Note added to these classes if they are campus‐to‐campus. A movie camera icon Camera Movie Video Record Film - Film Camera Icon Png, Transparent Png , Transparent Png Image - PNGitem is used to represent Interactive Video modality in the Schedule of Classes.

General Considerations

  1. Get comfortable with the equipment and modality prior to the start of the semester by testing it out and using resources such as the UKnowIt guide on P2A rooms and P2P rooms.
  2. Try to ensure that student learning is an equitable experience for all students, regardless of location.
  3. Consider student engagement as a continual area of importance and focus, both in‐person and online.
  4. Be prepared in advance with back-up plans in case technical and logistical issues arise during teaching.

For assistance or discussion of pedagogical strategies and best practices related to these types of rooms and the Interactive Video modality, please reach out to CATL (CATL@uwgb.edu) to schedule a consultation. If you need physical access to a room or have an issue with the technology in it, please contact GBIT (GBIT@uwgb.edu).

Tips for Success

Engage in advance preparation to support success for you and the students.

  • Ensure your use of technology and online components are aligned with your learning outcomes, as this is the most successful way to utilize the technological environment. For example, if your learning outcomes are tied to specialized knowledge about the field of chemistry and thermodynamics, integrating a Zoom poll that checks for understanding (i.e., which statement best represents the second law of thermodynamics?) could prove to be beneficial. (Howell, 2022; Raes et al., 2019)
  • Visit the classroom to become more familiar with its technology. Test out all equipment. You can attempt to share your materials on the virtual platform of Zoom or Teams with a volunteer ahead of time from the classroom. You can also do this alone as long as you take a second device to the room. [Note: You may need to step in the hallway when testing the second device] On one device, begin the meeting as the host. On the second device, use the invitation/link to access and to enter the meeting. This will simulate a second user in the meeting. Since you will have the same permissions on either computer, attempt to share any materials (presentations, videos) you will be presenting via the button in the platform (i.e., Zoom or Teams) while viewing it on the other device to ensure that it works as intended.
  • Before class each day, preload all files, pages, and/or programs that you will be accessing to reduce the wait time for students. This is especially true of videos that are streamed, including those on YouTube or in Kaltura. Preloading can be done on your own personal laptop (highly recommended method) or by using the podium computer in the room. If you are using your own device(s) in the room to project, you can connect via ShareLink, or preferably, to the HDMI cable in the room (please see our UKnowIt guide on P2A rooms).
  • Only have files, pages, and/or programs that are necessary for your class open during class. Unnecessary applications or windows could slow down the computer and lead to loading failures.

Promote equitable experience for your students across modalities.

  • Plan activities that involve both in‐person and remote students and promote their interaction. For example, alternate between online and in‐person participants in discussions (Bockorny et al., 2023).
  • Promote good communication by repeating or paraphrasing questions and/or answers from in‐person students to your remote learners even when there are drop microphones in the room, and by reading aloud what is in online chat and paraphrasing online student comments within the room itself.
  • Facilitate community‐building to help all students feel valued as members of the class (McGee & Reis, 2012).

Facilitate student engagement in-person and online.

  • Use online tools such as Hypothesis, OneDrive, Teams whiteboard, or Zoom whiteboard to allow social annotation and collaborative technological spaces for students to work. [Note: Some tools would potentially require in‐person students to be online in‐class as well] (Bower et al., 2014).
  • Facilitate small group discussions by giving clear directions, and participating both in‐person and online, being intentional about online students sharing out to the in‐person students, and vice‐versa.
    • One possibility is to monitor or join briefly each small group as the instructor. In addition to circulating in the classroom, you can potentially join virtual students via Teams or Zoom on a secondary device to engage in the conversation. [Note: You may need to step in the hallway when joining virtual groups.]
    • Another option for small group work is to elect group leaders, speakers, and/or notetakers to help facilitate reporting back to the larger class.
  • For large group discussions, consider having a student, or multiple students, monitor the chat so that interactions between remote and in‐person students can be as seamless as possible. (Raes et al., 2019)
  • Create online polling options (via Zoom or other platforms) for students to engage in rapid responses as class progresses, gathering real‐time feedback. [Note: In‐person students may need to be online as well]
    • Begin each class period with a warm‐up activity designed to engage students in both modalities. Use online polling as described above or try strategies such as playing videos or music or having a question of the day for people to answer in chat or out loud.

Create alternative ways of accessing materials when technological or logistical issues arise.

  • Access plays a critical part in the success of all students, so ensure that regardless of modality, everyone can access course content, assignments, activities, discussion boards, and other class materials in a digital format.
  • Be clear with students about your plan for class time. For example, you could proactively draft an agenda for each class session and publish it in Canvas. This way, if issues with connectivity arise, students will know what to do, what they can work on, and where to find materials applicable to the week or module. As with face‐ to‐face classes, interactive video courses are not recorded.

Common Technological Issues

  • Lag time between muting, unmuting, and responding to questions or prompts
    • Expect lag time between asking questions of remote students and their response. Practice patience in wait time to give ample opportunity for remote student participation. You can discuss the issue as an entire class, so that in‐person students know that you will wait before calling on anyone to respect that time delay.
  • Inaccurate position locking of voice‐tracking cameras
    • In‐class cameras in the P2P and P2A classrooms use voice tracking to follow the speaker, but they sometimes ‘lock in’ on someone who is not the intended primary speaker at the time. This is most likely to happen due to stray noise in the classroom. If it happens, the audio from the primary speaker may temporarily not be as clear. To bring the camera back to the instructor or the student who is talking, try to reduce background noise (classroom chatter, music, etc.) and have the person speak a bit more loudly for a few seconds. The camera should re‐position itself on them.
  • Unfamiliarity with Zoom’s customizable settings (for P2A classrooms only)
    • Not all P2A classes use Zoom technology for sessions, but if instructors are using it, they may find that the default settings feel too restrictive or not restrictive enough. There are many features in Zoom you can choose to use or change. These include: activating a ‘waiting room’ that requires acceptance by the host to join, allowing or restricting screensharing, muting microphones, hiding profile photos, restricting chat, or even immediately suspending all participant activities. These options can be changed. More information on the host controls and Zoom settings can be found here.

Contact Us!

Do you have a tip for your peers on teaching in these classrooms? Please let us know by writing to CATL@uwgb.edu.

How Will Generative AI Change My Course (GenAI Checklist)?

With the growing prevalence of generative AI applications like ChatGPT and the ongoing discussions surrounding their integration in higher education, it can be overwhelming to contemplate their impact on your courses, learning materials, and field. As we navigate these new technologies, it is crucial to reflect on how generative AI can either hinder or enhance your teaching methods. CATL has created a checklist designed to help instructors consider how generative artificial intelligence (GAI) products like Copilot, ChatGPT, and more may affect your courses and learning materials (syllabi, learning outcomes, and assessment).

Each step provides guidance on how to make strategic course adaptations and set course expectations that address these tools. As you go through the checklist, you may find yourself revisiting previous steps as you reconsider your course specifics and understanding of GAI.

Checklist for Assessing the Impact of Generative AI on your Course

View the 2024 Checklist for Assessing the Impact of Generative AI on your Course as a PDF.

Step One: Experiment with Generative AI

  • Experiment with GAI tools like Copilot (available to UWGB faculty, staff, and students), ChatGPT, or a similar application by inputting your own assignment prompts and assessing their performance in completing your assignments.
  • Research the potential benefits, concerns, and use cases regarding generative AI to gain a sense of the potential applications and misuses of this technology.

Step Two: Review Your Learning Outcomes

  • Reflect on your course learning outcomes. A good place to start is by reviewing this resource on AI and Bloom’s Taxonomy which considers AI capabilities for each learning level. Which outcomes lend themselves well to the use of generative AI and which outcomes emphasize your students’ distinctive human skills? Keep this in mind as you move on to steps three and four, as the way students demonstrate achieved learning outcomes may need to be revised.

Step Three: Assess the Extent of GAI Use in Class

  • Assess to what extent your course or discipline will be influenced by AI advancements. Are experts in your discipline already collaborating with GAI tools? Will current or future careers in your field work closely with these technologies? If so, consider what that means about your responsibility to prepare students for using generative AI effectively and ethically.
  • Determine the extent of usage appropriate for your course. Will you allow students to use GAI all the time or not at all? If students can use it, is it appropriate only for certain assignments/activities with guidance and permission from the instructor? If students can use GAI, how and when should they cite their use of these technologies? Be specific and clear with your students.
  • Revisit your learning outcomes (step two). After assessing the impact of advancements in generative AI on your discipline and determining how the technology will be used (or not used) in your course, return to your learning outcomes and reassess if they align with course changes/additions you may have identified in this step.

Step Four: Review Your Assignments/Assessments

  • Evaluate your assignments to determine how AI can be integrated to support learning outcomes. The previous steps asked you to consider the relevance of AI to your field and its potential impact on students’ future careers. How are professionals in your discipline using AI, and how might you include AI-related skills in your course? What types of skills will students need to develop independently of AI, such as creativity, interpersonal skills, judgement, metacognitive reflection, and contextual reasoning? Can using AI for some parts of an assignment free up students’ time to focus more on the parts that develop these skills?
  • View, again, this resource on AI capabilities versus distinctive human skills as they relate to the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
  • Define AI’s role in your course assignments and activities. Like step three, you’ll want to be clear with your students on how AI may be used for specific course activities. Articulate which parts of an assignment students can use AI assistance for and which parts students need to complete without AI. If AI use doesn’t benefit an assignment, explain to your students why it’s excluded and how the assignment work will develop relevant skills that AI can’t assist with. If you find AI is beneficial, consider how you will support your students’ usage for tasks like editing, organizing information, brainstorming, and formatting. In your assignment instructions, explain how students should cite or otherwise disclose their use of AI.
  • Apply the TILT framework to your assignments to help students understand the value of the work and the criteria for success.

Step Five: Update Your Syllabus

  • Add a syllabus statement outlining the guidelines you’ve determined pertaining to generative AI in your course. You can refer to our syllabus snippets for examples of generative AI-related syllabi statements.
  • Include your revised or new learning outcomes in your syllabus and consider how you will emphasize the importance of those course outcomes for students’ career/skill development.
  • Address and discuss your guidelines and expectations for generative AI usage with students on day one of class and put them in your syllabus. Inviting your students to provide feedback on course AI guidelines can help increase their understanding and buy-in.

Step Six: Seek Support and Resources

  • Engage with your colleagues to exchange experiences and practices for incorporating or navigating generative AI.
  • Stay informed about advancements and applications of generative AI technology.

Checklist for Assessing the Impact of Generative AI on Your Course © 2024 by Center for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Want More Resources?

Visit the CATL blog, The Cowbell, for more resources related to generative AI in higher education.

Need Help?

CATL is available to offer assistance and support at every step of the checklist presented above. Contact CATL for a consultation or by email at CATL@uwgb.edu if you have questions, concerns, or perhaps are apprehensive to go through this checklist.

 

 

Considerations for Using Generative AI Tools

Staying updated on the rapidly evolving generative-AI tools can be challenging, and educators may hold divergent (and strong!) views about them. In a previous article, we introduced generative-AI technologies, their capabilities, and implications for higher education. While some educators are enthusiastic about incorporating AI into their teaching methodologies, others may harbor doubts, apprehensions, or simply lack interest in exploring these tools. Regardless of one’s stance, understanding the disruptive impact of these technologies is crucial as we grapple with their ethical and pedagogical implications as educators.

In this article, we will explore some considerations for using generative-AI tools in the classroom, including preliminary precautions and ethical concerns. The more we understand these technologies, the better we can adapt to maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their negative impact.

Things to Consider When Using AI-Powered Tools in your Courses

Understand the inevitability of advancing AI technology.

AI, like many other recent technologies (e.g., personal computers or the internet), will continue to advance and not go away. In fact, they will progress and become better than previous models. This is not something we can “outrun.”

Encourage dialogue on the impact of AI in education

Consider discussing AI technology and its implications with your department, colleagues, and students. In what ways will generative-AI tools change the nature of learning outcomes and even careers in your discipline? How are other instructors responding? In what ways can instructors support each other as they each grapple with these questions?

Provide clear communication with your students on expectations

Whichever camp or situation you may fall into, it is always important to provide students with clear expectations for their use of AI in the classroom. Be specific in your syllabi and assignment descriptions about where and when you will allow or prohibit the use of these tools. You should also make sure whatever guidance you provide is also consistent with UWS Chapter 14 and the communications from our Provost Office. For example statements, view our Syllabus Snippets related to generative-AI

Use generative-AI tools with caution

Exercise caution when using generative-AI tools because the information provided by them may not always be accurate. AI creators, like OpenAI, are upfront about the fact that ChatGPT’s answers aren’t always correct. Due to their ability to hallucinate facts and resources, it’s best to avoid using these tool as a primary source. Be sure to also watch out for potential bias that can appear in outputs by these tools as they are trained on human-generated data.

Offer alternatives for privacy-minded students

If you are asking students to complete an assignment using generative-AI technology, you will also want to provide an opt-out or alternative assignment because students may legitimately not want to provide personal information to sign-up and use certain AI technologies. Many tools openly state they will sell that information.

AI detection tools are not perfect

When using Turnitin’s AI writing detection indicator, it is important to note that there is currently insufficient data to validate its effectiveness. Therefore, results from such reports should be treated as signals that additional review may be necessary. If you suspect academic misconduct, be prepared to support the claim with additional information beyond the detection tool’s report.

Consider ethical and legal issues when using AI tools

As instructors, it is also important to consider the potential ethical, legal, and security risks of AI technologies. Many generative-AI tools are “trained” on the data we put into them, so we must exercise caution when providing prompts to the tools. For example, never put students’ personal information into an AI-powered tool, as this may violate FERPA. Asking students to submit their work (or doing it yourself) to get feedback from ChatGPT or a similar resource puts their intellectual property into the public domain. This should not be done without their explicit consent.

Prepare students to use AI effectively

If you assign tasks that require students to use AI technology, it is important to provide clear instructions about how to do so and not assume students already know. Consider incorporating a discussion on the benefits, limitations, cautions, and ethics of using generative-AI. This could be a valuable in-class activity.

Don’t get caught up in the smoke

Although the capabilities of generative-AI can be scary or worrying at this point, it is best to not get bogged down in the negatives of AI or focus on how to detect cheating through AI use. Are you worried about what AI tools mean for your course materials? Schedule a consultation with us. CATL is here to help!

Learn More

Explore even more CATL resources related to AI in education:

If you have questions, concerns, or ideas specific to generative AI tools in education and the classroom, please email us at catl@uwgb.edu or set up a consultation!

A rusted weathervane with an overcast sky in the background

Addressing Misinformation in the Classroom

A few weeks ago, we posted about how to proactively foster information literacy in your classes. Even if you’ve taken many of the precautions we suggested, there will still inevitably come a time when misinformation arises in the classroom. Whether it is in the context of a Canvas discussion board or during an in-person discussion, an obviously false claim from a student can leave you feeling blindsided if you’re not prepared. With a little work, though, you can often turn these interactions into constructive learning opportunities. This post explores steps you can take to intervene when a student shares misinformation in one of your courses.

Ask Clarifying Questions

When a student shares something incorrect, your first instinct may be to shut them down. In order to turn this into a potential learning opportunity, however, it can be useful to allow the student space to work through what they’ve just shared. Consider asking follow-up questions to clarify what the student is saying and to probe their rationale (a method known as Socratic questioning). Without accusing or assuming, you could pose open-ended questions about where they learned this information and what they know about the source or author in terms of expertise or potential biases. These types of reflective questions help students analyze their misconceptions and may lead them to see the flaws in their own claim.

Be Cognizant of Tone and Body Language

As you engage with a student, be aware of your tone and body language (or written tone, in the case of asynchronous communications like discussion boards). Keep calm and take a moment to collect your thoughts, if needed. Once you are ready to address their remark, keep the tone conversational instead of accusatory. It is important that students don’t misconstrue your response as adversarial.

Try to gauge the student’s nonverbal cues during your dialog as well. If they seem hesitant to share once you begin asking them to clarify their claim, it might help to reassure them that complex topics often lead to misconceptions, and that they might not have had a prior chance to learn about this topic in depth. This helps emphasize that it is not a moral failing on the part of the student for believing misinformation. Instead, remind them inquiry and analysis are a natural part of the learning process (as well as a part of our institutional learning outcomes).

Offer an Invitation to Learn More

Depending on your course and the nature of the student’s misconception, your dialog might naturally segue into a side lesson to discuss the topic at hand. For example, if the claim the student made is a common misconception related to your discipline, you could use this as an opportunity to teach why the misconception exists, where it comes from, and how it might be harmful. If you have sources on hand that help illustrate your point, you might highlight how you determined your sources’ credibility and what measures the sources used to reduce potential bias in their findings, such as using a double-blind setup for a scientific study. You could also use this as an opportunity to teach about how to identify potential bias in a source. Often these situations can be a gateway for a healthy discussion about common misconceptions and real-world applications of the course’s content.

Still, it may not always be appropriate to turn a student’s remark into a teachable moment for the whole class. If a student seems particularly defensive or uncomfortable, or the topic seems emotionally charged for them, you can offer to continue the conversation with the student one-on-one after class. This allows you to shift the class’s attention back to the lesson and off of the student and prevent a situation from escalating.

Address Sensitive Issues with Extra Caution

It is worth mentioning that misconceptions can be extremely damaging when they double as microaggressions. A microaggression — or a subtle display of bias or prejudice — perpetuates harmful stereotypes or misconceptions about a group of people. The Eberly Center from Carnegie Mellon University has a quick guide on addressing microaggressions that outlines additional steps you may wish to take to mitigate the situation in addition to the ones outlined above. Another great resource is this guide on identifying and responding to microaggressions, authored by Dr. Kevin Nadal, a professor of psychology and a leading researcher on microaggressions. Responding to microaggressions in the classroom is crucial for maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment, so they should be handled with extra care.

Do You Have Other Ideas?

Handling misinformation can be tricky, but we hope that these suggestions can help you feel a bit more prepared the next time you encounter it in the classroom. How do you address students’ misconceptions in your own classes? Have any tips for turning these opportunities into teachable moments? We invite you to engage in thoughtful dialog on this topic — post a comment below or email CATL@uwgb.edu to continue the conversation!


Our special thanks go out to Preston Cherry, Christin DePouw, Lisa Lamson, J P Leary, Brian Merkel, Valerie Murrenus Pilmaier, and Jessica Warwick for their contributions to the 2021 Common CAHSS panel and follow-up 2022 IDI session that served as the inspiration for this article!