Historians of the pre-Civil War United States often view the early republic as more revolutionary than the American Revolution itself. In this course, we will explore the political, social, and cultural tumult of this period, from 1776 through the 1860. We will begin with a brief overview of the American Revolution but will focus on the problem of democracy during the following several decades. More specifically, we will explore and analyze how: white men increased political power and economic opportunity for themselves; white women sought both cultural and political influence; African American men and women (free and enslaved) resisted the institutions of slavery and racism; and American Indians struggled to protect their sovereignty and homelands within the borders of an aggressively expansionistic United States. This Writing Emphasis course will take a discussion-based approach to the analysis of both historical documents and historians’ interpretations.