Tag: #Haiti

Bargaining With Freedom

Emancipation in Saint Domingue was not a simple, or even consistent, process.  Throughout the tumultuous Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) promises of emancipation were offered from numerous angles.  Haitians were considered a valuable ally from a colonial perspective as the British, French, and Spanish all tried to increase their influence in the Caribbean.  Toussaint L’ouverture and Andre Rigaud, among other leaders, were forced to consider multiple offers of emancipation.  Ultimately, the path to emancipation proved more difficult than any could have imagined.

France’s own revolution must be addressed when examining the course of emancipation in Saint Domingue.  The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen sparked conversations about whether free men of color were privy to the same rights as free white men.  Vincent Oge, a prominent leader of the Society of the Friends of Blacks in France, incited a revolt through  mobilizing the gens de couleur.  Although the revolt was quickly put down the conversation could not be quenched; did the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen apply to free men in Saint Domingue, a French colony?

Saint Domingue first experienced emancipation when Civil Commissioner Sonthonax proclaimed freedom for slaves in the northern province of the island in 1793.  This “freedom” entailed severe restrictions, but it was nevertheless a beginning.  However, the conversation on freedom took an immediate turn when the French National Convention abolished slavery in France and all of its colonies.  Interestingly, some of the main opponents to the abolishment of slavery were gens de couleur.  Due to a caste mentality that had been enforced on the colony for decades, the free men of color likely did not appreciate watching blacks become their instant equals.  French emancipation swayed the armies of Toussaint L’ouverture, Jean-Jaques Dessalines, and Henri Christophe to join on the side of the French Republic against outside forces.  While Toussaint desired to maintain a relationship with France, the loyalties of former slaves were not sold on the French.

Prior to the National Convention’s emancipation of all slavery, a black rebellion had already begun.  Toussaint, who was quickly emerging as the unanimous leader of the rebellion, became engaged in negotiations with the Spanish.  The Spanish, who at the time held Santo Domingo, realized the fighting potential of Saint Domingue’s black population.  Emancipation was offered to Toussaint and his fighters if the black rebellion sided with the Spanish against their colonial enemies.  Emancipation became a bargaining chip to the colonial powers.  While some leaders wished to side with any power that would hurt the French, Toussaint was only interested in pursuing freedom for his fellow former slaves.  The Spanish realized that if Toussaint could be convinced of their desire to enact change, Toussaint’s disciplined forces would be on their side.

Toussaint remained committed to full abolition of slavery.  Following this paradigm he adopted the language of the French Revolution, specifically in striving for Liberty and Equality within Saint Domingue.  When word came that the French had officially decreed emancipation, and it was not merely a ruse by Sonthonax, Toussaint and his followers were quick to switch allegiance to the French.

The Island of Hispaniola. Home to present day Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

The Island of Hispaniola. 

With the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte in France, many feared that emancipation in the colonies would be revoked.  Initially this was not the case.  Napoleon continued the trend of using emancipation as a bargaining tool by agreeing to not re-introduce slavery if Toussaint would not invade Santo Domingo (If Toussaint were able to claim Santo Domingo and rally the slave there he would possess the entire island.  This would enable Toussaint and his followers to have incredible bargaining power with the European powers).

Emancipation proved to be the most powerful issue through the revolution.  In addition to instigating action, concern over emancipation also reigned in the radical ideas of black leaders.  Toussaint’s constitution of 1801 established an autonomous, nearly sovereign nation.  However, Toussaint would not go far enough to declare independence, fearing such an action would cause a French response that may re-introduce slavery; to prevent misunderstanding, Article 1 of Toussaint’s constitution declared Saint Domingue as just a single colony of the French Empire.

Napoleon’s subsequent response and writings indicate his desire to regain control of the blacks in Saint Domingue.  Whether by force or negotiation, it is clear that all interactions between Napoleon and the island would have been self-serving.  Emancipation in Saint Domingue was constantly used as a bargaining tool to win the favor of blacks on the island.


Popkin, Jeremy D. A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.

Geggus, David, ed. The Haitian Revolution: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2014. Print.

The Long Fight For Emancipation

Emancipation in Saint Domingue 


Picture of Saint-Domingue

In August of 1793, Sonthonax granted Gens de couleur and the Slaves emancipation in Saint- Domingue.


This is a picture of the Emancipation Proclamation

This decree was a very radical and pivotal moment in history, especially in the Americas. It was important because it was the first colony to abolish slavery, causing many other slave holding colonies to fear that it would put the idea of freedom into their slaves’ heads, possibly leading them to rebel. The road to emancipation started in 1792 when the King of France backed Jacques Pierre Brissot and signed a decree issuing the free gens de couleur full political and civil rights.  Not long after, Sonthonax and Polverel arrived in Saint- Domingue. Their job was to help enforce the decree granting these people their rights, deal with counter revolutionaries, and defeat the uprising. Both of these men were advocates of giving the gens de couleur their rights.

In 1793 Sonthonax and Polverel took steps to ally with the gens de couleur. Elizabeth Cowill states in ‘Fetes de L’ Hymen, Fetes de la Liberte, ‘Marriage, Manhood, and Emancipation in Revolutionary Saint- Domingue’, “discovering the ways in which the process of emancipation in Saint-Domingue involved a ritual struggle in which the rights and duties of man were fought and secured through military service and, equally important, republican marriage” (Conwill, pg. 126). It was a struggle to gain emancipation because it did not come free. The two commissioners attempted to appeal to the slaves by upholding the code noir and then later promising, through the June 1793 decree, that if they joined the military and fought with the French, they would be free and if they married a slave woman she also would be free. The two commissioners were worried about completely losing the colony, so they also decreed that if one married according to French law, the entire family would be freed. The two commissioners in return expected the newly emancipated slaves to fight for France and defend the colony of Saint Domingue from the insurgents.

Later in June of 1793 Spain invaded Saint- Domingue. Sonthonax reacted to this by abolishing slavery in the North Province and Polverel followed suit not long after by abolishing slavery in the Southern and Western Provinces. According to Jeremy D. Popkin, the author of, “A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution”, Sonthonax and Polverel used this as an attempt to, “preserve the colony of Saint- Domingue for the French Republic” (Chapter 3, A Republican Colony of Free Men). The two civil commissioners were trying to save the colony from the Spanish invaders. The emancipation occurred when it did, because Britain and Spain both entered in a war with France in February of 1793 and were welcomed by the white French settlers. The commissioners, seeing this threat and needing to crush it, allied with the gens de couleur and slaves by offering them emancipation if they joined the army. Once the threat became more significant, Sonthonax reacted by granting emancipation to the Northern Provinces knowing full well he needed their help to crush the invasion.

Through the emancipation, Sonthonax hoped to “preserve the plantation economy… proposed to replace slavery and the whip with remunerated forced labor and lighter forms of corporal punishment” (Geggus, Slave Emancipation Introduction). Sonthonax knew that France relied heavily on the Haitian economy and knew that France would be greatly impacted by the loss of it. Document 48) The Emancipation Proclamation of 29 August 1793, article 9 declared that, “ Slaves currently attached to the plantations of their masters will be obliged to remain there and to work the land..” (Geggus). So even though the gens de couleur were now citizens and could participate in politics, they were still attached to the land of their old masters and were more now like a serf rather than a slave. The proclamation was enforced through the new uses of punishment. Article 27 states,

“Punishment by whipping is absolutely forbidden and will be replaced, for problems of disobedience, by one to three days in the stocks as necessary. The strongest punishment will be the loss of a part or the entirety of the salary. It will be imposed by the justice of the peace and assessors” (Geggus).

The gens de couleur would be punished if they disobeyed the owner or the over seers. They were also punished by being put in jail if they did not own land, were not in the military, or employed. Using these punishments helped the leaders enforce the proclamation because the gens de courleur did not want to risk losing their new found freedom.

The Emancipation however, was very limited. Emancipation was only offered to those in the Southern, Western, and Northern provinces under Sonthonax and Polverel. The areas occupied by Spain and Britain were not freed either because the two countries still supported slavery. The decree was also only limited to men and not to the women unless they married a man who was free or in the army. The gens de couleur were still made to live on plantations and still followed the slavery like system.

Even though Saint-Domingue was emancipated, it didn’t come without a price. The gens de couleur and ex-slaves still had to deal with the slavery like system and the insurgents who did not side with Sonthona and Polverel. Over the next couple years the people of Saint-Domingue had to continuously fight to keep their new found citizenship and protect the emancipation.


Popkin, Jeremy D. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012

Geggus, David, ed. The Haitian Revolution: A documentary History. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2014

Colwill, Elizabeth. “‘Fetes de L’ Hymen, Fetes de la Liberte, ‘Marriage, Manhood, and Emancipation in Revolutionary Saint- Domingue” in Geggus nd Fiering, eds., The World of the Haitian Revolution (Bloomington: Indiana Uni. Press, 2009), 125-153